HERALD of the Azerbaijan Engineering Academy
Vol.11.№3 July – September 2019
ANALYSIS OF RING-LASER AND FIBER-OPTIC GYROSCOPES APPLIED ON AEROSPACE FIELD
R.N. NABIYEV, A.Z. MAMMADOV
The article analyzes the principles of constructing ring laser and fiber-optic gyroscopes, taking into account their existing technical capabilities, similar and distinctive features. Factors influencing the accuracy of gyros and bulk dimensions are revealed, and ways of their elimination are shown. For this purpose, technical specifications of high-precision ring laser and fiber-optic gyroscopes and their inertial measuring modules, created by key companies engaged in the preparation of the aerospace field, have been determined and areas of application have been determined. It has been found that fiber optic gyroscopes are the best choice for areas where high technical specifications are required in terms of accuracy, reliability, mass size, durability and energy efficiency.
Key words: ring-laser gyroscope, fiber-optic gyroscope, microelectromechanical system, inertial navigation, unmanned aerial vehicle, space vehicle, stabilization, sensor, optical fiber, photodetector, zero drift.
ENERGY-LOADING OF DISK-SHOE-BRAKE WITH AIR COOLING SYSTEM OF “MULTI-JET EJECTOR” TYPE VEHICLE
A.KH. JANAHMADOV, N.A. VOLCHENKO, M.YA. JAVADOV, V.S. SKRYPNYK, I.O. BEKISH, V.S. VITVITSKY
The article studies the intensification of air-cooling of disc-shoe brake of vehicle using the effect of multi-jet ejector. The proposed air-cooling system is mounted in the brake disc. The energy loading of the brake disc with the cooling system is rated, as well as its stress state.
Key words: vehicle, disk-shoe brake, friction pair, brake disc, air-cooling, multi-jet ejector, thermograms, thermal currents, thermal stresses.
THE RELIABILITY EVALUATION METHODS OF SPORT AND EMERGENCY RESCUE INSTRUMENTS, MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT, OPERATIONAL INDICATORS OF WHICH ARE DISCRETE RANDOM QUANTITIES
A.M. GAFAROV, B.H. SALAYEV
The article examines the mathematical-statistical methods reliability evaluation of sport and rescue equipment, machines and devices, exploitative indicators of which are discrete random variables. The obtained results are analyzed.
Key words: sport, accident, rescue, machines, equipment, failure, reliability, quantities, discrete, statistics, probability, theory.
ROTARY DRILLING PROBLEMS AND THEIR ELIMINATION METHODS
A.M. ALIYEV, N.A. AKBARLI
The article studies the uncertainties that are found in the elements of the rotational rotor.
Key words: drilling rotor, gearing, chaining, thrust bearing, wear, destruction.
STUDY OF SILICON PHOTO-ELECTRON MULTIPLIERS AT LOW TEMPERATURES
F.I. AHMADOV, F.N. ABDULLAYEV, G.S. AHMADOV, R.A. AKBEROV, S.M. NURIYEV,
A.Z. SADIGOV, S.S. SULEYMANOV, R.M. MUKHTAROV
This paper presents the results of a study of the physical parameters of silicon photomultipliers called MAPD-3NK that were manufactured in a frame of MAPD collaboration. It was found that the MAPD-3NK photodiodes with a temperature change of 1°C, the breakdown voltage is changed to 61mV. The dark count of the photodiode decreased with decreasing temperature and, with a difference of -81°C, the dark count decreased 169 times. It was revealed that, at low temperatures, the creation dark count is mainly affected by the after pulses effects. Also, the amplitude resolution of the signal corresponding to the first photoelectron decreased to 32% depending on the temperature change of -93 °C. Thus, the possibility of using these photodiodes in low-temperature detectors was confirmed.
Key words: silicon, photoelectron, photodiode, temperature, detector.
INTERACTION OF WELLS – THE MAJOR FACTOR OF SYSTEMACITY WHEN DEVELOPING OIL FIELDS
The paper proposes a method for diagnosing the interaction of wells in a section of an oil reservoir by the method of correlation analysis. In the interaction of several wells operating in the same area, any changes in the mode of operation in one well affect the operation of another, the degree of interaction of the wells is determined by the correlation coefficient. The simplest and most convenient indicator of the closeness of ties is the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, which is used in the work. The results obtained in a comparative analysis are confirmed by the results of tracer studies. The proposed scientific and methodological approach in combination with the discriminant criterion forms the rules and practical recommendations for development objects.
Key words: correlation analysis, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, interaction of injection and production wells, tracer studies, isocore map, discriminant criterion, enhanced oil recovery, enhanced oil recovery.
OPERATIONAL CONTROL OVER THE SYSTEM CONDITION “WELL – REZERVOIR”
The paper proposes a method for the study of a gas-lift well during its launch, which makes it possible to more reasonably apply the solution and, at no additional cost, determine the main indicators of the formation and well.
Key words: gas lift, shear stress tangent, volume of absorbed oil, starting pressure.
RESEARCH OF FILTRATION WATER IS IN CLAY LAYERS
The results of laboratory experiments and mine researches of forcing aquatic mining holes are presented in the article. It is educed that, during filtration of water of takes place the breach of linear law of filtration of Darcy in clay breeds there is a nonlinear law of filtration, at that with the increase of total pressure, permeability of these breeds increases. It is explained by anomalous properties of aquatic tapes appearing on the internal surface of hard particulate of breed.
Results of experiments are brought as the chart brought to a picture, that show that with the increase of pressure of filtration (initial pressure), the value of initial total of pressure notedly diminishes and at the value of pressure of filtration, equal 3,0 МПа, it becomes zero.
Key words: filtration of water, clay lay, nonlinear law filtration, initial pressure gradient, initial pressure drop and injection well, injectivity coefficient, Reynold’s parameter.
IR-SPECTROSCOPIC RESEARCH OF SULFATE-ANION-CONTAINING TITANIUM OXIDE
M.R. SALAEV, E.A. GUSEYNOVA, S.E. YUSUBOVA, M.R. AL-BATTBOTTI, K.Y. AJAMOV, K.S. GASANOV
Using IR spectroscopy, two types of titanium dioxide have been studied: industrial and prepared by sol-gel method, modified with sulfate anions. It was found that, depending on the input method of sulfate anions, excellent phases are formed on the surface of titanium dioxide: isolated sulfate groups when introduced by the impregnation method and sulfate sulfide groups in the sol-gel method. The modification of industrial titanium dioxide is accompanied by the appearance of isolated surface groups of Ti-OH and sulfate-anionic groups, which are coordinated with the metal as a bridge bidentate ligand. It is noted that the sol-gel sample contains traces of an alcohol precursor and is characterized by increased hydration.
Key words: IR spectroscopy; titanium dioxide; sulfate anion; sol-gel method; ligand.
ABOUT USING OF SPECIFIED CONSUMPTION RATE OF METHANOL TO PREVENT
THE FORMATION OF HYDRATES
A.Y. JOMARDOV, A.N. QURBANOV, M.A. HUSEYNOVA
Methanol is used to produce of natural gas in the oil and gas fields, process and transport it onshore without hydrates. According to the results of field research, the thermodynamic parameters of natural and associated gas produced and transported on “Absheronneft” OGPD: pressure (P), temperature (T), capacity of produced gas (G), quantity of moisture and other parameters were analysed, and consumption rate of methanol is specified.
Based on the results of the scientific research and field work, the necessary data were collected and the methodologies were selected for using of specified consumption norm of methanol.
Taking into account the above mentioned it is advisable to carry out a detailed analysis of the methanol consumption norm used in the gas processing at OGPD field and conduct systematic control over its application on the basis of actual data obtained as a result of scientific research works carried out in the fields and laboratory of “Absheronneft” OGPD to prevent hydrate formations occurring in field condition.
Key words: pressure, productivity, humidity, inhibitor, hydrocarbon, absorption.
THE USE OF NANOTECHNOLOGIES IN THE OIL-EXTRACTING INDUSTRY
H.F. MIRALAMOV, Ch.İ. MAMMADOV
In this paper, the authors consider some methods of improvement, and simplification of oil production and oil recovery with the help of nanotechnologies. The use of nanotechnologies in increasing of the oil recovery is an urgent task. The main directions for solving this problem can be formulated as follows: dimensional effects in the properties of catalysts, size effects in catalytically active porous materials; nanotechnologies in the separation of mixtures; nanotechnological coatings. In addition, nanomaterials are planned to be used as a part of the intelligent system that will include different sensors, drives and control devices. One of the papers considers the issues of how oil and water can be separated more effectively.
Key words: nanotechnology, oil industry, nanoscience, innovation, oil recovery.
CONTROL OF ELECTRICAL DRIVES ON THE SHIP’S LIFTING DEVICES
WITH THYRYSTOR VOLTAGE REGULATOR
E.F. SULTANOV, E.M. MAMMADOV
The article describes the control of ship lubrication electric drive with the assistance of thruster voltage regulators and their advantages.
Key words: vessel, cargo lifting mechanism, electric drive, thyristor, voltage regulator.
TEMPERATURE MODE OF AUSTENITIC-BEYNITE TRANSFORMATION
M.B. BABANLI, R.S. SHAHMAROVA, T.Q. CABBAROV, B.H. HUSEYNOV
The paper examines the mode of production of high density bainitic iron instead of highly dispersed pearlitic iron. It is indicated that when casting high-quality synthetic cast iron using the method of isothermal hardening, it is possible to transform it into cast iron of a bainite structure. This significantly increases the physical and mechanical properties of cast iron.
Key words: bainite cast iron, perlite, austenite, isothermal hardening, synthetic cast iron.
QUESTIONS OF CHANGING THE RELATIONS OF SEISMIC SPEEDS, EARTHQUAKEA.G.RZAYEV, S.R. RASULOV, R.Y. QANIYEVAThe cause of the abnormal change in the ratios of longitudinal and transverse seismic waves leading to an earthquake is established. A mathematical approach to the quantitative determination of the change in these relations is proposed depending on the value of the Poisson ratio. It is shown that the main reason for this change is the difference in the mineralogical composition of the rock in the source of the earthquake.Key words: rock, earthquake, seismic waves, ratio of velocities, ultimate strength, mineralogical composition.
GEOLOGY, MORPHOLOGICAL AND MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE
UGUR GOLD DEPOSIT, GEDABEK ORE DISTRICT, LESSER CAUCASUS, AZERBAIJAN
A.A.VELIYEV, SH.M.GADIMOV, A.A.BAYRAMOV, S.M.MAMMADOV, C.R.IBRAHIMOV
The article is devoted to the geological structure, the morphology of the ore mass, the stages of mineralization, the mineralogical composition properties and estimation of mineral resources of the Ugur gold deposit of industrial significance, located 5km from Gedabek deposit on the Gedabek-Bittibulag deep fault and first explored by the Gedabek Exploration Group of AIMCL in 2016. As a result of the geological interpretation, it was revealed that in the Ugur area the ore body has a complex “bowl” shape, horizontally and vertically decreasing in the deeper direction; mainly located in metasomatites formed as a result of hydrothermal alterations of subvolcanic rhyolites. It can be concluded that gold-bearing ore formation is mainly closely related with barite-hematite, massive and semi-massive pyrite mineral associations.
Key words: Gedabek ore region, Ugur deposit, stages of mineralization, mineralogical composition, gold.
ANALYSIS OF FIRE EXTINGUISHING PROPERTIES OF FOAMING AGENTS
USED FOR PUTTING DOWN FIRE
M.A. GURBANOVA, Sh.A. AKHMEDOV
The article provides a comparative analysis of the fire extinguishing properties of blowing agents used in the field of fire suppression.
Key words: frothers, fluorine-containing frothers, fire, synthetic hydrocarbon frothers.
NEW METHOD OF CALCULATION OF PASSAGING ABILITIES OF CLOSED IRRIGATION NETWORKS AND REGULARITY OF SPEED DISTRIBUTION IN ROUND PIPES
B.G. ALIEV, Z.G. ALIEV, A.F. ZEYNALOVA
The article shows the definition of the throughput capacity of the pressure pipelines of the closed irrigation network. A fundamentally new method of calculating the laws of velocity distribution in round pipes was derived, on the basis of which a new formula was obtained for determining the flow resistance in pipes, which makes it possible to reliably determine the throughput capacity of pipelines of a closed irrigation network.
Key words: irrigation system, throughput, law of velocity distribution.
Vol.11.№4 HERALD of the Azerbaijan Engineering Academy October – December 2019
EVALUATION OF IMPACT OF SUPER HIGH SPEED MICROPARTICLE ON AIRCRAFT OUTER SURFACE IN THE UPPER LAYERS OF TROPOSPHERE
A.M. PASHAYEV, A.Kh. JANAHMADOV, A.A. ALIEV
The paper examines an impact of micro-sized particles (spherules) of the cosmogenic and anthropogenic origin on the aircraft outer surface of during cruising flights in the upper layers of troposphere. It analyzes the known mechanisms of “projectile-target” collision at speeds of ~1…12 km/s. An approximate estimate is carried out for a damage from such impacts on the exterior paintwork and glazing of aircraft and their intended consequences.
Key words: meteorite, micrometeoroids, spherules, erosion, aircraft, high speed impact, paintwork, glazing, troposphere, space debris.
S-BAND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM FOR SMALL SATELLITE
Kh.I. ABDULLAYEV, R.A. HASANOV, B.E. HUSEYN-ZADE
This article reviews the well-known S-band radio communication modules (12 items from 7 manufacturers) for the telecommunications system of a low-orbit (1000 km) small satellite (SS) was performed. A block diagram of one of the possible options for building a telecommunications system is compiled and the main characteristics of its peripheral units are discussed. The budget of the satellite-to-ground radio link of the S-band telecommunications system is calculated for the proposed SS and the general requirements for the characteristics of its ground segment are determined.
Key words: radio communication, communication satellite, small satellite, S-band telecommunications satellite, budget of the radio link.
ENERGY-LOADING OF SELF-VENTILATED DISC OF VEHICLE WITH BRAKING SPIKES
A.Kh. JANAHMADOV, D.A. VOLCHENKO, M.Y. JAVADOV, N.A. VOLCHENKO, E.S. FEDOTOV, V.S. VITVITSKY
The article examines the efficiency criteria of self-ventilated disks with the cylindrical baking spikes, their thermal balance and energy loading with respect to vehicle.
Key words: vehicle, disk-show brake, disk with spikes, left half-disk, right half-disk with flange, heat balance, energy-loading.
DETERGENT DISPERSANT ADDITIVES FOR MOTOR OILS
I.D. GULALIYEV, S.M. VELIYEVA, I.A. SADIRZADEH
A simplified technology is developed for the production of detergent-dispersant sulfonate-type additives based on a mixture of petroleum oil and alkyl naphthalene. The resulting medium and high-alkaline semisynthetic calcium sulfonates have high physico-chemical and functional properties, and are superior to commercial oil sulfonate additives C-150 and C-300, as well as a foreign counterpart — the Hightech 6060M additive. Using high-alkaline additive PS-300, an experienced motor oil M-10G2 is developed, which meets modern requirements in terms of quality.
Key words: petrolium oils, alkyl naphthalene, detergent-dispersant additives, sulfonate additives, functional properties, motor oils.
DECISION MAKING BASED ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE INDICES
CHARACTERIZING WORK OF WELL
T.A. SAMEDOV, S.G. NOVRUZOVA
Based on the system approach it is possible to evaluate changes taking place in the layer and results of the carried out various measures. At the same time due to a number of technological indices possibility to separate effective and uneffective wells as a result of carrying out measures on the separation of general well fund to the groups is created.
During the work of gas-condensate fields in the exhausted rejime it is possible to reduce condensate loss of the well product by controlling technological work rejime of the wells in various periods of well exploitation.
Key words: gascondensate, wells, measures, indices, parameters, well product, well fund, losses, technological mode, system approach.
STUDY OF THERMODYNAMIC (PRESSURE-VOLUME-TEMPERATURE) PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR
FLUIDS IN THE EXPLOITATION PROCESS OF OIL-GAS FIELDS
C.N. TAIROV, A.Q. KERIMOVA
The results of thermodynamic (PVT) processes of researches of reservoir fluids (oil and gas) having important significance in the process of oil-gas condensate fields development have been given in the article. Researches were carried out in the fields Durovdag, Khilli, Neftchala. The obtained results are presented in the form of dependences graphs and tables. They find their application in the process of calculation and defining reserves of hydrocarbons in controlling the processes of the development of the fields, determination of optimal exploitation regimes of producing wells, assessment of the efficiency of the methods on reservoir.
Key words: thermodynamic properties, component composition of gas, market gas, relative gas density, viscosity of reservoir oil, coefficient of oil volume increase.
DETERMINATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVE EFFORT OF A SOLID MAGNETIC SOLENOID
The article deals with the determination of the electromagnetic traction of a solid magnetic solenoid. The determination of the magnetic field and the forces of interaction of the magnetic fields are created by the solenoid in the design and construction of devices using the principle of magnetic levitation. Based on the data obtained, the proposed method for determining the strength of the interaction of magnets and solenoids makes it possible to calculate the MLS parameters with sufficient accuracy, so the time has come to conduct research and experimental studies of the design associated with planning devices using the magnetic levitation principle.
Key words: magnetic levitation, a solid magnetic solenoid, magnetic field, electromagnetic traction.
INFLUENCE OF ELECTRICAL AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ON THE RATE OF PRECIPITATION
OF SOLID BODY PARTICLES IN THE LIQUID
The article examines the influence of electrical and magnetic fields on the rate of precipitation of solid body particles in the liquid. Hydrodynamic model of precipitation of solid body particles in the oil is created with respect to availability of electrical and magnetic fields.
Formula allowing to evaluate the influence of the stress of electrical and magnetic fields on the rate of precipitation of particles in oil is derived. It is determined that dependence of the rate of particles precipitation in the oil dependence linearly depends both on intensity of electric field and induction of magnetic field.
Key words: electrical field, magnetic field, particles of solid body, oil well, precipitation of particles.
TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SPECTRAL RESOLUTION OF THE DEVICE AC-2
N.G. JAVADOV, N.Y. YAGUBZADE, J.S. MEKHTIEV
The article is devoted to the development and creation of an installation with high spectral resolution.
In research aimed at protecting the environment, the remote sensing and spectral measurements with high resolution are widely used. To implement these measurements, there is an urgent need for modern, more advanced high-precision optical systems, as well as for the development of new special installations.
Key words: spectral resolution, remote sensing, optical systems, installation.
7D OPTICAL PHOTON SWITCH FULLY OPTICAL NETWORK
The article discusses routing methods and architecture, including the principles of constructing and analyzing the parameters of optical channel switches, compressed by wavelength in fiber optic networks. New 7D controlled photon switch substantiated and proposed
Key words: fiber optic networks, photon switches, microelectromechanical system, optical channel, wavelength.
DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF LITHIUM BATTERIES
R.N. NABIYEV, A.A. ABDULLAYEV, Q.I. QARAYEV
The article comparatively analyzed and summarized the stages of development of the production of lithium rechargeable batteries (AB), their designs and manufacturing technology, the chemical elements used in the manufacture of electrodes and electrolytes, the parameters of the electrodes depending on the chemical composition, chemical reactions occurring in them, charging and discharging characteristics, applications, advantages and disadvantages .
Due to the fact that the energy capacity by specific gravity and volume are higher, the advantages of using lithium-polymer batteries in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), wearable and other electronic devices have been identified.
Key words: accumulator, batteries, lithium-ion, lithium-polymer, electrolyte, electrode, charging, discharging.
ASSESSMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC FRONTS ON TROPOSPHERIC DELAY OF GPS SIGNALS
It is determined, that the most valuable effect on GPS signals tropospheric delay is rendered with a pair-wise sequential atmospheric fronts occurring is following series: arrival of warm front; arrival of cold front. The formula for calculation of probability of tropospheric delay over the fixed level due to the atmospheric fronts is suggested. The order for use of technical means of remote sensing for study and prediction of atmospheric fronts is determined.
Key words: atmospheric front, GPS notification, tropospheric delay, remote sensing, forecasting.
APPLICATION OF SOCIAL TAXES: REALITIES AND WAYS OF IMPROVEMENT
The article provides information on the conceptual framework and financial aspects of social security and focuses on its historical development. The author emphasizes the significant strengthening of the states role in the social sphere and the serious expansion of the social state since the last century. It is indicated that according to the world practice, general tax revenues (state budget funds) and targeted social taxes (contributions) are the two main stable sources of financial resources to compensate the consequences of social risks.
The article reports about the global challenges leading to the difficulties in social security and notes the incompatibility of financial resources with the ever-increasing obligations of the state and the need for changes in the social sphere due to potential serious consequences of such incompatibility. It is also emphasized that appropriate social policy in a particular country should be based on a realistic and comprehensive analysis of the social, economic and political situation, to restore and maintain economic growth based on the effective use of available resources and to stimulate labor activity.
The article also describes the significant achievements in the field of social security in Azerbaijan and the broad reforms of the government to realize the existing potential for legalization of wages, which contributes to ensuring the labor and social rights of workers.
Key words: social security, financial aspects, social risks, tax revenues, social right.
WAYS TO INCREASE EFFECTIVENESS INDEX (LPI) IN THE LOGISTICS SYSTEM
OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN
V.E. QASIMOV, N.F. AGHAYEV
Evaluating the current situation and effectiveness of logistics in the world helps to identify, troubleshoot and optimize problems across countries. The World Bank has been preparing the Logistics Performance Index (LPI) to measure the effectiveness or logistical performance of a supply chain over the two years since 2007. The latest edition of the LPI index for 2007, 2010, 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2018 covers 160 countries.
The supply chain is the backbone of international trade. Its logistics covers cargo transportation, warehousing, border transparency, payment systems, and other functions that are increasingly used by manufacturers and traders. Good logistics performance is important for economic development, diversification and poverty reduction. LPI and its components help countries understand the challenges facing them and their trading partners.
According to the 2018 LPI results, which is the fourth of the LPI queries published in the title of Connecting to Compete, Germany has the highest score 4.20 points and Afghanistan has worst with 1.95 points (with a score based on factors from 1 to 5). Germany has ranked first in all four LPI surveys. Compared to previous surveys, lower-ranked countries have improved their overall score more rapidly than countries with better previous results. Of course, one of the main reasons here that countries with previously good results already have built a strong infrastructure and logistics system, while lower-ranked ones just created theirs.
Key words: logistics effectiveness index, logistics, supply chain, international transport, transport corridors.
PROSPECTS OF SCIENTIFIC CAPACITY OF THE COUNTRY BY PRODUCTION OF A CARBAMIDE
The possibility of preserving the production capacity of the enterprise in conditions of market instability due to an alternative way of urea export outside the agricultural sector is considered. The opinion was expressed on attracting the scientific potential of the country to provide access to the market with the offer of a non-traditional form of transfer.
Key words: urea production, market instability, market conservation strategy, technology transfer.
MINERAL WATERS OF THE SOUTH-WESTERN PART OF THE LESSER CAUCASUS AND PROSPECTS OF THEIR USAGE
M.İ. ALIYEV, U.Y. HASANOVA
Formation and spreading of prevalence of precious mineral waters in the south-western part of the Lesser Caucasus shows that their manifestations are mainly related to regional metamorphism processes, geological development history and paleo-hydrogeological conditions occurring in mountainous areas of the region and the primary waters of hydrosphere and water-holding rocks The main role in the formation of chemical composition of mineral waters is due to the carbonate rocks in the complex interactions.
Key words: mineral waters, hydrogeochemical, chemical composition
MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITION OF SECONDARY QUARCITES OF THE CHIRAGDARA ORE FIELD
The mineralogical composition of secondary quartzites of the Chiragdara ore field includes quartz, kaolinite, dikkit, halloysite, diaspora, zuniit, fluorite, alunite, pyrite, topaz, etc. Quartz, kaolinite, dikkit, sericite, and sericite are most developed among the minerals of the secondary quartzite. which are found everywhere and are usually the main rock-forming minerals of secondary quartzites.Key words: secondary quartzites, mineralogical composition, quartz, kaolinite.
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS
CONTAMINATION OF CASPIAN SEA SEDIMENTS
F.Kh. ALIYEVA, L.R. SADIKHOVA, J.A. GULIYEV, K.Y. AJAMOV, E.A. GUSEYNOVA
A number of studies were carried out to study the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in bottom sediments sample. The chromatographic method of analysis was used for determination of components concentration. 35 soil samples were collected by using grab sampler. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons varied from 1.9 µg/g to 1387 µg/g in terms of the sample’s dried weight. The amount of the unresolved complex mixture was in the range from 1.6 to 1265 µg/g, in terms of the sample’s dried weight. Samples taken near Baku Bay were more contaminated. The high concentration of unresolved complex mixture and the ratio of unresolved complex mixture to the resolved components, indicates that the region is contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.
Key words: Environment; Caspian Sea; Petroleum Hydrocarbons; Absheron peninsula.
USE OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES AND ENERGY PRODUCTION BY BIOGAS INSTALLATION
Sh.A. AHMEDOV, S.N. NOVRUZOVA
The continuing increase in energy demand on Earth continues to trouble society. The article describes the use of alternative (renewable) energy sources and materials on a modern biogas plant.
Key words: alternative energy source, wind energy, geothermal energy, biogas enrichment.
HERALD of the Azerbaijan Engineering Academy
Vol. 12. №1 January – March 2020
SIMULATION OF DROP-RAIN IMPACT BY TRIBOPHATIC LOADING
A.M. PASHAYEV, A.Kh. JANAHMADOV, A.A. ALIYEV
The problem of drop-rain tests on the external paint coatings (EPC) of aircraft (AC) is examined with respect to the data published by other authors. The proposed invention kinetically simulates the hydroerosive effects through the process of tribophatic tests based on the scheme “ball–half-plane”; the specifics of application of such substitution schemes are noted. In the example of polyurethane ECP, authors experimentally determined under the tribophatic effect the number of cycles up to the critical wear, which is equivalent to the previously conducted the drop-rain tests.
Taking into account the correction coefficient on the basis of tribophatic tests, it is possible to provide an estimate of the criterion of the hydro-erosion resistance of particular material without conducting drip and rain tests.
Key words: drop-rain erosion, tribophatic tests, polyurethane, surface, paint coating, damage, hydroerosion, drop, impact.
RESEARCH OF STATİCS ERRORS OF PIEZOELECTRIC CONVERTERS OF MECHANICAL MOTION PARAMETERS
А.Т. HAZARКHANOV, T.I. KARIMLI, V.A. NEYMATOV, V.S. HUSEYNOV
The article presents new design variants of piezoelectric converters of mechanical motion parameters. Static equations are composed for complex resistances of piezoelectric sensitive elements connected by differential pattern taking into account linear-changing errors of geometric sizes and angle of the converter as well as, for the output voltage of the electric bridge scheme. Computer models were built and the results of their simulations were analyzed. The nature of the effects of errors on the output voltage of the converter has been revealed.
Key words: piezoelectric converters, differential circuitry, static linear-changing errors.
THERMAL BALANCE OF SELF-ACTIVATED DISC-SHOE BRAKES WITH SPIKES
M.J. JAVADOV, D.YU. ZHURAVLEV, M.M. Nasirova, V.Y. POPOVICH, I.O. BEKISH, A.N. WU-DVUD
The thermal balance of self-activated disc-shoe brakes of vehicles, which significantly affects the operational parameters of their friction pairs, has been analyzed. The level of power loading of friction pairs of brakes is investigated at different temperatures.
The studies are based on the design of a self-motivated disc with cylindrical spikes, which connect the left half-disc to the right half-disc, having a flange. Proposed is a temperature method for estimating thermal balance of a self-motivated brake disc with spikes under operational conditions.
Spikes of different cross-section are considered and their role in heat exchange processes with washing opposite air flows during vehicle movement at different speeds is analyzed.
Key words: disc-shoe brake, self-activated brake disk, cylindrical stud, friction belt, heat balance.
TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE LASER COATING OF GATE VALVE WITH THE METALIC POWDER
N.I. IBRAGIMOV, R.M. MAMEDALIEV, Kh.B. BAYRAMOV
The technological mode of applying metal powder to the gate valve surface has been developed. To calculate the technological regime, the composition and physicochemical properties of the metal powder are presented. According to the composition of the chemical element of the powder, the thermal diffusivity of the metal powder is calculated.
Depending on the coefficient of thermal diffusivity and coating thickness, the laser pulse time and the laser beam power are determined.
Based on the sequence of this technological regime, depending on the thickness of the metal coating, any powder can be applied to the surface of the steel gate. The sequence of the technological regime of applying the powder to the gate surface makes it possible to increase the corrosion strength and wear resistance of the gate valve metal coating.
Key words: laser installation, technological parameters, powder materials, gate, gate valves, physico-chemical characteristics, the main parameters of the laser installation.
DISCOVER OF CONGESTED AND POORLY DRAINED OIL DEPOSITS AND THEIR FURTHER ACTIVE DEVELOPMENT
A.H. SHAKHVERDIEV, A.V. DENISOV
The article examines an alternative concept to the non-stationary flooding of oil deposit. Of particular relevance, it is the task of determining the location of congested and poorly drained zones of oil deposits, for which it is proposed to use a new informative indicator – the coefficient of normalized unit selection, as well as maps of the equal levels of normalized unit selection. To engage these areas in active development, it is proposed to use the Pareto principle, which allows to divide the entire stock of producing wells into four groups to assign an addressable program of geological and technical measures for each of them.
Key words: congested and poorly drained deposits, flooding of oil deposits, coefficient of normalized unit selection of oil, water and fluids, Pareto distribution, discriminant criterion.
STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF BALLAST ON THE MACROSCOPIC PARAMETERS OF OIL MIXTURES
G.G. ISMAYILOV, M.B. ADIGOZALOVA, F.B. ISMAYILOVA, G.A. ZEYNALOVA
The article investigates the change of macroscopic parameters, such asdensity, viscosity and pour point, depending on the number of ballasts in theircomposition when mixing different-grade oils. The correlation between macroscopic parameters and the presence ofballasts, as well as the ratio of oils in the mixture, was established. In somecases, there was even an abnormal influence of ballasts. It is shown that it is necessary to study the kinetics of ballast deposition ina mixture during oil mixing.
Key words: oli mixture, ARP (asphalten-resin-paraffin), macroscopic indicators, ballast, mechanical mixetures, amount of water, density, viscosity, pour point, rheological properties, chemical composition.
GAS INJECTION INTO THE DOME OF WATER-PRESSURE UNIT TO DISPLACE OF WATER
O.A. ALIYEVA, A.S. ALIYEV
The paper examines the displacement of water to the surface by injecting gas into the dome of water-pressure unit. The deposit has been filled with fluid. That’s why, it is required to create underground gas storages in the central upper part of water-pressure system. It is necessary to displace the water under the pressure from the drilled and unloaded special wells.
Consequtvie approaching method is used for solving the task and formation of the storage takes place at the expense of displacement of fluid by operating wells. Liquids and gases enriching water pumping system, field system and, parameters are known. Contours and ftows are the boundaries of the lastone. Depending on the time it is necessary to determine pressure in the storage, the volume of the cavity on the boundary of the storage, power of the occured gas change of the quantity of the injected gas.
In the considered condition the zones having the boundaries with injection and flow contours the water movement can be taken into accoumt as radial. Az the mentioned zone is not big, then elasticity of water and porosity of the medium are not considered and the problem of interest can be noted as filtration of uncompressed luquid in the undeformed field. As a result of the constant pressure in the flow contour free water flow takes qlace by compressed gas in a small change of discharge.
Key words: underground gas storage, dome, water pressure, flow contour, operating wells, injection wells, pressure loss, gas-water contour.
BACTERICIDAL PROPERTIES OF NEW CORROSION INHIBITORS OF STEEL IN PRESENCE OF SULFATOREDUCTING BACTERIA
G.R. GURBANOV, M.B. ADIGEZALOVA, Z.A. ABDULLAEVA, N.A. ABDULLAEVA
It is established that at the content of GAZAN-1 and GAZAN-2 inhibitors of 10 mg/l in the mineralized environment the speed of corrosion, close 0.003 g / m2×t is reached, which corresponds to the value of about 0.05 mm/year used as a standard to describe the sufficient efficiency of inhibitor.
The influence of inhibitors GAZAN-1 and GAZAN-2 on the number of bacterial cells and formation of hydrogen sulfide was evaluated in the Postgate nutrient medium. It was revealed that the inhibitors of GASAN-1 and GAZAN-2 had a bactericidal effect on the sulfate-reducing bacteria. Depending on the concentration (max. 10 mg / l) and the nature of the inhibitor, the number of viable bacterial cells decreased by 90-100%, which correlated with a decrease in the formation of hydrogen sulfide by 90%.
Key words: bactericides, inhibitors of the range “GAZAN”, hydrogen sulfide, number of sulfate-reducing bacteria, corrosion.
assessment METHODS of operatIonal relIabIlIty of raIlway statIons
The article sudies methods of assessing the operational reliability of railway stations. The work examined physical and technological reliability, considered the role of technological reliability for assessing integrated reliability of complex systems. It was noted that the reliability of a complex system as a railway station was mainly affected by the reliability of technical elements (railway track; Automation, telemetry and communication equipment; Power supply system; locomotives; cars; Length or number of tracks, etc.), as well as reliability of organizational and technological factors (state of tracks or parks, duration of processing or sorting of trains, number of locomotives or locomotive crews, etc.). General classification of possible failures at railway stations is considered. In order to evaluate the operation, the analysis of the division of stations into parts consisting of separate subsystems and systematization of technological failures of each subsystem was carried out. As a result of the studies carried out, it was noted that the complexity of the railway station and the branching of the functional links create great difficulties in the numerical evaluation of reliability. It is shown that for this purpose, it is more useful to use methods of simulating functional processes of the station together with statistical methods of estimation taking into account the relationship of station subsystems.
Key words: railway station, operational reliability, technical and technological failures, evaluation, simulation.
IMPROVEMENT IN THE LEGAL PROTECTION OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN AZERBAIJAN
The article is devoted to the analysis of the legislative base of Azerbaijan based on international norms in the field of intellectual property (IP) protection. The role of the state is noted on the one hand to guarantee the exclusive rights of the owners of IP objects, and on the other to prevent the possibility of monopolization of the market. Among a number of adopted laws, the law “on Antimonopoly activity” is considered from the position of the right to IP objects. Attention is drawn to the fact that the article of the law concerning the scope of exclusion of the Antimonopoly policy reflects individual IP objects. The opinion was expressed on amending the wording of the law in question to grant a monopoly right to the owners of all IP objects. Attention is paid to the issue of abuse of monopoly rights, reflected in the law “on unfair competition”, aimed at combating the illegal use of the results of intellectual activity. In order to fulfill the legality of legal protection of rights holders and create favorable business conditions, it is proposed to consider the possibility of establishing a specialized court for intellectual property in Azerbaijan.
Key words: intellectual property, antimonopoly activity, unfair competition, specialized court.
EFFICIENCY OF THE AUTOMATED SECURITY-NOTIFICATION SYSTEM
R.N. NABIYEV, K.Sh. RAMAZANOV, R.R. RUSTAMOV
The article examines the steps in assessing the effectiveness of the automated guarding-warning system.
The calculations were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of «İQM 4.00.000 TT və İT» automated guarding-warning system of the perimeter of meteorological radar facility protected by technical means under conditions of reliable detection of the intruder, protection of the technical group and defence group, as well as protection of engineering equipment. As a result of the calculations, it was determined that the values of highly efficient indicators of the system are within the range established for the civil aviation equipment.
Key words: civil aviation, aviation security, guarding, object, perimeter, intruder, integrated, guarding-warning system, efficiency.
COMPLEX EVALUATION OF RAIN IMPACT ON THE QUALITY OF CPS POZITIONING SYSTEMS
R.A. EMINOV, S.I. IBRAHIMOVA
It is known that some factors, such as rains, lead to delay in GPS signals and their high frequency. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of the impact of rainfall on the quality of GPS positioning results is needed.Given the above, a comprehensive approach has been proposed to evaluate the cumulative effects of rainfall on GPS indicators such as signal, sound ratio, and phase delay.In general, rain, hail, snow, and many other hydrometeorological events have been treated as discrete particles in certain volume.The rainfall factors that have a negative impact on the performance of the GPS system have been analyzed. An indicator of a comprehensive approach to the study of the negative impact of rain on the GPS system has been proposed.It is noted that although the total amount of water vapor is of a double nature, it is not possible to accurately separate the two water vapor before the rain. Humidity delays, which begin to increase GPS signals 20 minutes before rain, begin to adversely affect the performance of the GPS system.A third important factor is the multiplicity of GPS signals that can occur due to the effects of moist soil around the GPS receiver antenna after the rain.Analysis of the main factors related to the rain that negatively affect the performance of the GPS system were made. An indicator of a comprehensive approach to the study of the negative impact of rain on the GPS system has been proposed.
Key words: rain, GPS signals, impact indicator, quality, rating, humidity delay.
INVESTIGATION OF THE ELECTRIC DRIVE OF THE FREIGHT PUMP USING A SOFT STARTER
E.F. SULTANOV, S.S. İSMAYILOV, A.S. ŞIXIYEV
İn the article is told about the starting of the electric drives of cargo pumps existing on the exploited vessels. Here the starting of the electric drive is fulfilled by the switching from a star to the stator windings triangle of an engine. During research it was found, that the transients are connected with the starting current of the motor windings is 5-7 times rotation moment reaches 150-200% of the nominal. These events lead to failure of the mechanical parts of the engine, loss of voltage in the supplying network.
Taking all this into account, the article provides the connecting of soft starter to the stator windings to control an asynchronous motor with a short-circuited rotor, as the main element. Existing control systems for electric drivers of cargo pumps due to non-corresponding with the requirements of the modern period in order to improve the reliability of the control systems and reduce energy consumption, proposed the using of a soft starter to start electric drives with higher power on ships transporting the liquid cargo, which is in operation and recently built with a degree automation.
Key words: ship, asynchronous motor, freight pump, electric drive, soft-starter, star-delta.
MATERIAL COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGICAL FEATURES OF KHAR-KHAR COPPER-PORPHYRIC DEPOSIT
M.I. ALIEV, A.Z. AHMADOV, A.A. SHIBAYEVA, Sh.M. KITACHAYEV
On the example of a technological sample of ore taken from a geologicalexploration adit located in the secondary sulfide concentration zone of the considered deposit,the material composition (chemical and mineralogical), as well as metallurgical (flotation)features of this mineral raw material are examined in detail. The main industrially valuablecomponent of ore is copper (0.6%). For the associated extraction of significant interest is gold(0.48g/t) and partially silver (6.8g/t). Mineralogical studies have established that oremineralization is represented mainly by pyrite, goethite, chalcopyrite and chalcosine; rarelycovellins. Ore-bearing rocks are mainly characterized by quartz-feldspar metasomatites, the mainminerals of which are quartz and feldspar (albite). Given the material composition of the oreexperimentally developed flowsheet and reagent regime flotation, to provide the conditionedcopper concentrate grade СС-7 (Cu – 15,1%), when extracting it in 85.6% of said metal. Alongwith copper, 75.15% of gold and 62.6% of silver contained in ore are extracted from thisconcentrate with industrially significant (paid) contents, which provides a significant increase inthe value of the obtained commodity flotation concentrate.
Key words: Khar-Khar, copper-porphyric ore, material composition, refining technology, flotation.
PETROLOGY AND POTENTIALLY MINERALIZED OF THE GEDABEK INTRUSION
M.N. MAMMADOV, A.A. BAYRAMOV
The potential of noble mineralization based on petrological features of the Gedabek intrusion Kimmeridgian period is investigated in the article. Gedabek intrusion formed in the perfect ensialic island conditions on the geological development’s Neocomian stage of Shamkir horst anticlinorium. Simultaneously, the primary melt under the control of alkaline calcareous basaltic magma which is rich with aluminium evolved from olivine-hypersthene gabbro to granodiorite in the conditions of subduction intrusive chamber. It has been identified that intra-chamber evolution has been accompanied by crystallization differentiation. Discreteness or biomodalism occurred after diorite differentiation of gabbro phase. In this regard, the most common differentiates of the intrusion are considered quartz diorite. As a result of intense metasomatic process, processes such as kaolinization, sericitization, quartzitezation, scarnization, epidotization and limonization originated with volatiles and hydrothermal solutions of each phase in the apical part of the intrusion of Upper Bajocian age’s rocks.In view of the staging of these processes and the variability of the mineralization’s composition in the apical part of intrusion is distributed in viable concentration. The main ore-forming melt in the article is considered quartz diorite and its derivatives. The metasomatic rocks show a relationship with hydrothermal solutions and volatile components.
Key words: Gedabek intrusion, petrology, granitoids, metasomatites, ore mineralization.
THE INFLUENCE OF EFFECTS OF OPTIMAL CONDITION OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION IN THE COCOA BUTTER INDUSTRY
M.E. SHAMILOVA, EWA OSTROWSKA – LIGĘZA
In this review, we make efforts to identify the fundamental concepts of supercritical fluid extraction and determine the aspects of optimal condition of supercritical carbon dioxide as a customary method of producing cocoa butter.
The extraction of cocoa butter from cocoa liquor or cocoa bean is based on hydraulic pressing, expeller pressing, and Soxhlet extraction with organic solvents. Recently, to provide health and safety production maintains itself a new demand to develop clean and efficient technologies to obtain cocoa butter.
As a potential alternative extraction method, supercritical fluid extraction offers rapid, nontoxic and contamination-free extraction in the oxygen-free condition. Advantages have been realized to apply SFE technology, mainly supercritical carbon dioxide and with addition modifiers used in the cocoa butter industry. Moreover, to study the optimal condition for the extraction of cocoa butter through SFE has been investigated and explored its future perspectives.
Key words: supercritical fluid extraction, supercritical CO2, effects optimization of extraction of cocoa butter.